– A statement that fails to satisfy its own conditions for rational acceptability or truthfulness.
– When two or more options given when there are actually more available.
– Attempting to undermine the truth of an idea by attacking the person who proposes the idea.
– This aims to show that a protocolar proposition is untrue because of increasingly unacceptable events that could follow.
– To otherwise unrelated points are joined together and treated as a single proposition or question.
– To force, pity, consequences and popularity.
– Making assumptions about the whole based on a small sample set.
Begging the Question
– A person will make an assumption that puts a conclusion into one of the premises.
– Making a case weaker than it actually is so as to defeat the argument more easily.
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